APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY:
- Improves spectral resolution of x-ray monochromators and spectrometers
- Temporal Pulse compression
- Extreme UV (EUV)
- Nanotechnology applications requiring ultra-high density periodically alternating lines with different physical or chemical properties
- Direct self-assembly of nanocrystals or polymers
- Increases the resolution of soft x-ray spectrometers by two orders of magnitude (resolution of 106)
- Extremely high diffraction intensity (>40%)
- Can be manufactured using existing thin film processing techniques
- Increases intensity of signals with the same resolution
Howard Padmore and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have invented an Ultra-High Density Diffraction Grating that reaches extremely high resolving powers and a technique for fabricating such gratings. This is the only technology that produces ultra-high diffraction gratings suitable for soft x-ray applications. The researchers have demonstrated that an extremely high diffraction intensity (>40%) and resolution of 106 are possible. The technology provides a unique way to fabricate a diffraction grating with controllable ultra-high density grooves.
The Berkeley Lab technology employs a combination of precision lithography, anisotropic etching of silicon, multilayer coating, and chemical-mechanical polishing.
How an Ultra-High Density Grating is made: 1) fabrication of a near atomically perfect, low-resolution eschellette grating; 2) deposition of a multilayer coating with alternating materials and nm layer thickness; 3) polishing to reveal the periodic structure with the period determined by the bilayer spacing and slice angle value.
The Berkeley Lab Ultra-High Density Diffraction Grating can be used in spectroscopy as a high resolution, dispersing element and can optimize the intensity, resolution, and size of a spectrometer or monochromator or any combination of the three to a factor of ~30. More specifically, the Berkeley Lab method can be applied to extreme UV and soft X-ray diffraction up to keV energies. It can also be used for nanofacet lithography.
The Berkeley Lab technique used to fabricate the Ultra-High Density Grating is useful in constructing linear templates with lines of reactive surfaces. These templates can then be used to direct self-assembly of nanocrystals or polymers. They can be applied to any application that uses ultra-high density, periodically alternating lines with different properties. This includes temporal pulse compression where a radiation pulse with a broad temporal distribution and chirped in wavelength with respect to time can be compressed to a much shorter pulse.
- Issued US Patent 8,331,027 available at www.uspto.gov.
- Available for licensing and collaborative research.
FOR MORE INFORMATION:
To learn more about licensing a technology from LBNL see http://www.lbl.gov/Tech-Transfer/licensing/index.html.
REFERENCE NUMBER: IB-2523
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